The following concept map for the fundamental forces of nature illustrates the power of cognitive condensation.

This map clearly shows that one can learn a tremendous amount of science, mathematics, and technology by judiciously organizing knowledge using causal, logical, and functional relationships and by making only statements that are correct in their generalities or contain specifications of the limits of their applicability.

Please see how this map clearly explains the material universe as we currently know it. A friend told me one time that it may be too much to mention the "strong forces" to middle school or some college students. I agreed -- as long as one does not tell them about the nucleus with positive electric charges literally sitting on top of each other! It takes the STRONG forces to keep them together in the nucleus, despite their repulsion of each other! That is all one needs to discuss.

The rest of this concept map is self-explanatory. The electromagnetic forces are responsible for the formation and properties of most substances we deal with on a daily basis.

The gravitational forces explain the formation of stars, planetary systems, galaxies (like the Milky Way), and the fact that we do not fly or float into space (gravity holds us to Earth).

Middle school students, who learn multiplication and division, can master the contain of this concept map!

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